Unveiling Climatotherapy’s Richness in Romania’s Balneary Treatment

Research paper by Iuliana Tasie and Dr. Mihaela Cucu

Romania is blessed with a varied and at the same time unitary relief, in which the proportionality of the three characteristic forms is noticeable: mountains 34%, hills 35%, plains and meadows 31%, arranged in an amphitheater against the Carpathian arch that surrounds the great interior depression of Transylvania and, gradually, decrease in altitude towards the periphery. The location along the 45th parallel gives its climate a temperate character, with a hint of continentalism in the eastern half.

The human body reacts to the environment that demands the neuroendocrine system, depending on the geographical conditions, the type of atmospheric circulation, with all its set of climatic elements and the characteristics of solar radiation. Several climatic regions have been established that overlap the bioclimatic regions, delimited according to medical coordinates, depending on the body’s reactions.


The climate of plains and low plateaus.

(Romanian Plain, Moldavian Plain and Plateau, Dobrogea, Tisza and Banat Plains). It is partially identified with the exciting and demanding steppe and coastal bioclimate, characterized by a marked stress on the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as on the glands with internal secretion, with sedative nuances in the western part of the country. A separate category is the sea coast.

Relatively cold winters, hot summers in the plains and cool summers on the coast, low humidity, long duration of sunshine, moderate humidity in the plains and sea on the coast, reduced precipitation, accentuated dynamics – a specific continental climate with moderate shades on the coast. Moderate thermal comfort in the summer on the coast due to the wind, lower in the plains.

Air ionization rather low (up to 1200 ions/cm2), with a slight predominance of positive ions. At the seaside, where the shore waves break, negative aero ionization predominates.

The skin stress has quite high values ​​due to the large temperature amplitudes and the wind. Pulmonary stress is high, especially on the coast due to the large amounts of water vapor.

The total high bioclimatic stress explains the demanding nature of the plain and coastal climate.

The climatology indications are correlated with the balneological ones:

  • aero and heliotherapy have a long practice period,
  • thermolysis processes are requested, especially by increasing the loss of fluids from the body in the plains and training and thermal tempering on the coast,
  • the activity of the glands with internal secretion (pituitary, adrenal cortex, gonads) is stimulated, the deposition of calcium in the bones,
  • non-specific immunological processes increase.

The particular climate of the Black Sea coast is a transitional climate between the steppe and marine climates. The influence of the sea basin mitigates the thermal contrasts of the air, the characteristics of the steppe, and favors air currents with a breeze character. The transport of cooler air from the sea during the day provides the coast with a particularly pleasant thermal regime, preventing caloric overload of the body. The air is of an accentuated purity, rich in salty aerosols, present especially in the vicinity of the piers, where the breaking waves spray the sea water. It is charged with negative ions and water vapor, contains salt, iodine, bromine.

The plants and the entire vegetation contribute to the creation of special microclimate conditions.

Sunbathing acts on the body both through caloric and ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet rays prevent osteoporosis, depression, insomnia, weather sensitivity, alleviate the symptoms of autoimmune diseases, treat hypothyroidism, ovarian failure, rheumatism, bone tuberculosis, skin diseases.

The intense brightness of the sun-bathed beaches also adds to the exciting effects of the other factors of the coast.

The sand of the coastal beaches is part of the therapeutic complex (psamotherapy) and fights water retention in the body, alleviates rheumatic pains, eliminates toxins and increases resistance to infections.

Walking through the mineralized sea water (between 13 and 18 g/l), the movement, the rhythmic massage exerted by the crashing waves, the thermal contrasts between the air and the water that bathe the skin, as well as the “mantle” of salt that is deposited on the skin after the evaporation of the sea water, have great value for the treatment of circulatory and lymphatic diseases of the lower limbs. Bathing in the sea and mud wraps help these people regain the power of muscle contraction and joint mobility. The waves, through the mechanical action they exert, directly influence peripheral venous circulation, with a preventive role in the appearance of varicose veins.

Spa centers offer therapies based on sea water, lake water and sapropelic mud, sulphureous mesothermal springs, mud baths and cold mud applications according to the Egyptian method (anointments), warm mud wraps, warm baths, etc. The black, pasty sapropelic mud from Lake Techirghiol is unique and known throughout the world. Concentrated sludge extracts were shipped to remote locations. At 150 meters from the sea, the beach facilities follow the Egyptian method of open air treatment. An air rich in iodine, magnesium, bromine and sodium chloride creates a particularly favorable atmosphere for aero ionization and insolation. As in Germany, pelotherapy is also practiced with the peat mud found in Lake Mangalia (Romania).

Thalassotherapy is a natural therapy and refers to the medical use of the beneficial properties of the sea (including the coastal climate, the sun, sea water, marine mud, seaweed , sand and other substances extracted from the sea) for a preventive and restorative purpose. Treatments based on remedies related to the marine environment are common in Europe and are used in both wellness and medical tourism.

Cure indications of bioclimate of plains and low plateaus: chronic diseases of the locomotor system and the peripheral nervous system, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, recovery of lung damage after COVID, long COVID, dermatosis, rickets, osteoporosis, chronic gynecological diseases, extrapulmonary tuberculosis.


Black Sea Coast: Eforie Nord, Eforie Sud, Techirghiol, Neptun, Mangalia, Saturn

Plains: Amara, Lacu Sarat, Balta Alba, Murighiol

The climate of hills and plateau.

It includes regions with average altitudes between 200-300 meters and 600-800 meters (the Subcarpathians of Moldavia and Muntenia, the Transylvanian Plateau, the Crisurilor Hills)

Superimposed on the sedative-indifferent (sparing) climate

Reduced demand on neurovegetative and endocrine functions, acclimatization poses fewer problems.

Relatively long duration of sunshine, moderate cloudiness, moderate humidity, moderate precipitation, lower atmospheric pressure. Autumn monthly maximums and spring monthly minimums. Wind with lower speeds.

Climate with moderate temperatures, rather mild winters, cool summers, humidity and dynamics reduce. Maximum thermal comfort.

Increased negative air ionization due to clean air, vegetation and water surfaces.

Ideal climate for treatment and rest, recommended for all ages.

Climatology indications correlated with balneological ones:

– Aero and heliotherapy

– Field cure

– Association with balneophysical treatments: mineral waters, mud, mofetas, etc

– The microclimate of the salt pans for the treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases – saline aerosols, moderate ionization, slight thermal discomfort from cooling, reduced skin and lung stress.

Cure indications:

– Asthenic neurosis, overwork, convalescence,

– Recovery post COVID and long COVID

– Diseases of the locomotor system and the peripheral nervous system.

Resorts: Bazna, Baile Govora, Baile Herculane, Baile Olanesti, Geoagiu-Bai, Moneasa, Baltatesti, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Covasna, Baile Felix, Ocna Sibiului, Pucioasa, Sacelu, sarata Monteoru, Sangeorz-Bai, Balvanyos, Ocna Sugatag

Mountain climate.

The entire Carpathian arc on the territory of Romania. Altitude from over 600-800 meters up to 1800-1900 meters.

Mountain climate of the shade:

– moderate cold

– upper cold-high mountains

– cold rough- at the top

Tonic-stimulating bioclimate, maximum efficiency between 1000-1800 meters.

Two categories: the climate of positive forms (mountains), warmer

                        the climate of negative forms (depressions), with intense and long thermal inversions.

High humidity (80%), moderate cloudiness, high sunshine in the high areas, fairly large precipitation differently distributed, low atmospheric pressure, winds of different intensity, high dynamics (hail, blizzard, hailstones) in the open areas.

Negative air ionization.

Skin and lung stress quite high values, especially at high altitudes.

Stressful, stimulating-tonic bioclimate, more demanding with increasing altitude.

Indications of the belt: especially for young people, with benign conditions, for the association of naturopathic treatment with training and thermal tempering.

– Neuroses, anemia, overwork, convalescence, chronic endocrine diseases, rickets, growth disorders, pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

Resorts: Baile Tusnad, Borsec, Borsa, Busteni, Sinaia, Slanic-Moldova, Stina de Vale, Vatra-Dornei, Malnas-Bai.

Forest climate

The protection of the atmosphere and the climatic functions demonstrate the role played by the forest in maintaining the ecological balance.

A large volume of plant biomass engaged in the photosynthesis process. It ensures the consumption of carbon dioxide resulting from its own “metabolism”, from neighboring ecosystems or due to pollution, releasing the necessary oxygen on the same scale. “GREEN LUNG”, forest ecosystems, especially tropical ones, being some of the most important producers of oxygen on a planetary level.

Aero ionization richly negative.

The microbial load was only 50-55 bacteria/m3.

Specific topo climate. It is determined by the influence exerted on solar radiation, the circulation of air masses and evaporation processes:

 – moderation of temperature extremes,

 – low intensity of solar radiation,

– high humidity,

– atmospheric calm and lower wind speeds,

 – the more uniform distribution of precipitation and the increase of its quantity.

Important recreation function – optimal environmental framework for human health, effect on the psyche.

Increased thermal and environmental comfort

Reduced skin and lung stress.

The bioclimate is therefore relaxing, sedative.


– improvement of metabolism,

– thermoregulatory adaptation reactions,

– increasing oxygen assimilation and CO2 elimination, by reducing the number of breaths per minute. Recovery post COVID and long COVID.

– decrease and stabilization of blood pressure and pulse.

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